Each product transported by air is first mixed with the air and then separated from the air. Although both operations are difficult, it is preferred due to its flexible structure.
While the mixing operation is performed by help of rotary valves, loading stations and venture, the separation operation is performed by means of filters. On the other hand, pneumatic means dust, dust separation and absolute filtering.
Blowers are used as generator of air, the transport source; in other words, the fans of low pressure high flow rate of air are used.
However it seems that the transport is performed by mixing process pressure air with the product, it requires serious engineering operation and experience. On the other hand, pressure and vacuum may also be used in the pneumatic transport processes.
Each product to be transported pneumatically bears different characteristic. For this reason, density and efficient transport pressure of each product differs. And this, in turn, differs ways of transport. If you attempt to transport sugar on a line used for transport of flour without any modification, your line is doomed to fail as it may be expected normally. None of the equipment you use may operate properly. If the process is designed correctly and it is operated with proper instruments and equipment, you may transport both sugar and flour on the same line after making parametric changes in the automation system. This example shows necessity of a serious infrastructure and concept of experience in the practice.
Pneumatic transfer is mostly preferred for granular and power articles or products. The speed varies 12-25m/s depending on the phase density of this transfer made by air. Transport method in the pneumatic transfer is two types, namely dense phase and dilute phase.
Transfer operation in the dilute face is performed by vacuum or pressure. The transport operation is generally performed in the pressure range of 250-600mbar. These two methods should be distinguished depending on the process of these two methods.
Although the Mechanical Transport seems difficult and has a set of patterns, it is the most cost-effective solution for electric power. Investment cost is high in the long distances, but use of power is less. In general, it is also used for transfer at fixed flow rate volumetrically for all pneumatic transport operations.
Pneumatic transport is the most flexible transport method compared to the screw spiral, band and chain conveyor. Although many secondary instruments and dust separation systems should operate together, it is the most preferred transport system thanks to this flexible structure.